Gateway Language Checking

Checking the GLT

Note

This module answers the question, “What are the guidelines for checking the Gateway Language Literal Text (GLT)?”

When checking the GLT, remember that the GLT needs to retain the original grammatical forms (as far as possible), the idioms, and the figures of speech of the original so that the OL translator can consider them and use them if they communicate the right thing in the target language. If those forms get changed in a GL translation of the ULT, then the OL translator will never see them and the notes about them will not make sense.

When you are checking the GL translation of the ULT, you must only compare it to the English ULT. Do not refer to any other version of the Bible when checking the ULT. The GL translation of the ULT may not be as smooth and clear as the GL Bible that you are used to, because it is showing the OL translator the forms of the original biblical languages. Please do not try to make the GLT sound like your favorite translation of the Bible in your language.

What Should Be Checked in the GLT?

In addition to the things mentioned in Types of Things to Check in TA, the text needs to be checked in these areas:

  1. Idioms - If there is an idiom in the source ULT, then that same idiom should be in the target GLT. If the idiom does not make sense in the target language, make sure that there is a note that explains its meaning. If there is not a note for it, then write one in the GL TN that explains its meaning.
  2. Figures of Speech - If there is a figure of speech in the source ULT, then that same figure of speech should be in the target GLT. If the figure of speech does not make sense in the target language, make sure that there is a note that explains its meaning. If there is not a note for it, then write one in the GL TN that explains its meaning.
  3. Grammatical Forms - Check to see if the grammatical form, that is, the order of words in the sentence or the way that the words are arranged, is the same in the target GLT as they are in the English source ULT. If the words are arranged differently, ask yourself if they could be arranged the same as the words in the English ULT and still make good sense, or if it is necessary for them to be arranged in a different way in the GLT. If they would still make good sense in a way that an Other Language translator would understand, then put them in the same arrangement as in the English. This is because the English ULT is attempting to reproduce the grammar of the original, as much as possible, so that the OL translator can see it. But if the words are in a different arrangement because that is what makes sense in the target GL, then leave them in the different arrangement.

What Should Not Be Checked in the GLT?

It is not necessary to check the GLT for naturalness with speakers of the GL. The GLT will not be natural in some cases because it is designed to retain the forms of the biblical languages, as far as the GL allows.

Checking the GST

Note

This module answers the question, “What are the guidelines for checking the GST (Gateway Language Simplified Text)?”

When checking the GST, remember that the GST does not use figures of speech, idioms, abstract nouns, or grammatical forms that are difficult to translate into many languages. The purpose of the GST is to change all of these problematic grammatical forms into more universal ones to make them easier to translate, and to make the meaning as clear as possible.

When you are checking the GL translation of the UST, you must only compare it to the English UST. Do not refer to any other version of the Bible when checking the GST. The GL translation of the UST may not be as smooth and natural as the GL Bible that you are used to, because it does not use many of the forms of expression that make a language sound natural. These forms of expression are different for every language. So please do not try to make the GST sound like your favorite translation of the Bible in your language.

What Should Be Checked in the GST?

In addition to the things mentioned in Types of Things to Check in TA, the text needs to be checked in these areas:

  1. Sentence length - If you see any long or complex sentences in the GST, see how you might break them up into shorter sentences.
  2. Passive voice - If you see a passive voice construction in the GST, check to see what it was in the English source UST and change it so that it is active.
  3. Abstract Nouns - If you see an abstract noun in the GST, check to see what it was in the English source UST and change the abstract noun back to an action or description word.
  4. Events out of order - Make sure that the events in your GST are in the order that they occurred. Also make sure that the logical flow of arguments, such as occur in many of the New Testament letters, is in a natural order that makes sense in the GL.
  5. Figures of speech and idioms - Make sure that the GST does not contain any figures of speech or idioms. Instead, it should use only plain, clear language.

If you see any of these forms in the English UST, email <help@door43.org> to let them know of the error.

It is also useful to check the GST for clarity with speakers of the GL, but do not confuse clarity with naturalness (see below). You can read a passage from the GST to a speaker of the GL and ask if the meaning is clear. If they say, “Yes,” that is enough. If they also say, “But I would say it differently,” that is fine. We expect that they would say it differently. But the GST needs to say it in a plain way. As long as the meaning of the GST is clear, it is a successful translation.

What Should Not Be Checked in the GST?

It is not necessary to check the GST for naturalness with speakers of the GL. The GST will very often not be completely natural because it avoids some forms that languages naturally use such as idioms and figures of speech. The GST must avoid these because they are specific to individual languages and do not translate well from one language to another.

Checking the GL translationNotes (GTN)

Note

This module answers the question, “What are the guidelines for checking the GL translationNotes?”

When checking GTN, remember that GTN are very closely tied to the text of the GLT. The purpose of GTN is to explain any phrases or sentences in the GLT that are hard to understand or hard to translate.

What Should Be Checked?

In addition to the things mentioned in Types of Things to Check in TA, the text needs to be checked in these areas:

  1. Make sure that the phrase in each note that translates the phrase from the English ULT is exactly the same as the corresponding phrase in its translation in the Gateway Language Literal Text (GLT). In other words, the phrase in the GL Notes must quote the phrase from the GLT accurately. The words must be exactly the same.
  2. Check the meaning of the note in the English UTN and make sure that the GTN has the same meaning.
  3. In the same way, make sure that any quotations of the GST have the exact wording of the GST.
  4. Check that the GTN makes sense with the GLT. It is possible that the GL translator made a good translation of the English UTN but when the note is read with the new GLT, it might not explain the GLT in the right way, or it might not make sense with the GLT. In that case, you will need to discuss the problem with the translator. Then you will need to decide how to change the note so that it explains the GLT in a way that will be helpful to the OL translator.
  5. Check that all references in the Notes to the GST make sense when read with the GST.
  6. If the GL translator has decided that a note does not apply to the GLT and has deleted the note from the GTN, check to make sure that the note was not needed.
  7. If the GL translator has written a new note, check to make sure that it was needed, and that it makes sense with the GLT.

In order to check the GTN for naturalness and clarity, you will need to have people read them together with the GLT and GST. Then ask them to mark anything that is not clear to them, or that they would say in a different way. Then give this feedback to the translator so that he can make those places clearer and more natural.

Finishing Checking

Note

This module answers the question, “How do I know when I have finished checking the GL resources?”

It can be difficult to know when you have sufficiently checked a text for errors or for ways that it could be improved. In a sense, this process is never completely finished, and people continually find ways to improve texts that have been checked already by many people. For example, there are many Bible translations in English that have been checked by many biblical scholars and are considered to be excellent translations. Yet it is possible to find places where they could be made better, and over time, they are continually revised, and new versions are published. This is the process that you should expect to happen with these Bible translations as well.

Checking Evaluation Lists

The following lists can help you to consider whether or not you have checked a GL resource sufficiently.

For the Translator

  • Review the guidelines for translation of the specific materials in the Gateway Language Manual. Make sure that you have translated the material according to those guidelines. Correct anything that does not conform.
  • Carefully compare your translation with the source text. Correct any inaccuracies.
  • Read the resource that you have translated alongside the related resources, either in English or, if they have been translated, in the GL. Make sure that the resources are clear and make good sense together. The GLT and GST should be read alongside each other, the Notes, Words, and Questions alongside the GLT and GST.
  • Submit your translation for review by a partner on the translation team.

For the Translation Team

  • Review and discuss the resource together as a team, comparing it to the source
  • Check the GLT and the GST with the English Words and Notes checks in translationCore
  • Check the GLT for accuracy and literalness with the aligning tool
  • Check the GST for completeness with the aligning tool
  • Check the GL Notes and GL Words by reading them with the GLT and GST. Improve anything that is not clear or not helpful.

For the Broader Translation Oversight Committee

  • After orienting a group of pastors (preferably representing various denominations) to the goals and guidelines of the GL resources, assign them to review the resources, especially the GLT and GST.

  • When they are satisfied with the resources, have them communicate this by affirming the following:

    • the translation conforms to the Statement of Faith (see http://ufw.io/faith/) and Translation Guidelines (see http://ufw.io/guidelines/)
    • the translation accurately communicates the content of the source document in the target language
    • the style of the translation conforms to the guidelines set forth for translation of this resource in the Gateway Language Manual
    • the translation team has edited the Translation to their satisfaction
  • Arrange for Bible scholars to review the alignments of the GLT and GST with the original biblical languages.

  • Arrange for leaders of different church networks or denominations to review the GL resources and affirm the validity and usefulness of the resources. This works best if they have been involved in the project from the beginning and know and trust those who have done the work.

Additional questions that can help you to evaluate if the translation has been sufficiently checked are in the TA module Self-Assessment Rubric. Just be aware that the ULT and the UST are not intended to be completely natural in the GL. (Again, this is not intended to be and “end-user Bible.”)

The most rigorous testing of your work will come when OLs teams begin to use it for Bible translation. Be prepared to make many more corrections at that time!

See also

TA module Self-Assessment Rubric

Source Text Creation

Note

This module answers the question, “How do I make my Gateway Language translation a source text?”

Source Text Process

Source text publishing is required for all Gateway Languages so that they can be used as source texts by Other Languages. Note that this process only applies to Gateway Languages.

Prerequisites

Before a Gateway Language translation can become a source text, the following prerequisites must all be met:

  • Whole Resource - The whole resource (a whole book) must have completed the [Translation and Checking Process](../translation-overview/01.md). Parts of resources (e.g. half of the Open Bible Stories, only a few chapters of a book of the Bible) cannot be published.
  • Checking - A translation must have been put through the checking process and been validated by Gateway Language church leadership. See [Validation Checking](../../checking/level3/01.md).
  • On Door43 - Door43 must have the version that will be published. If the work was done on multiple devices, then it may need to be merged together. Get the help of a Content Tech to make merging easier (either email <help@door43.org> or use the #helpdesk channel on Slack).
  • Agreements - Everyone involved in the translation and checking must have agreed to the [Statement of Faith](../../intro/statement-of-faith/01.md), the [Translation Guidelines](../../intro/translation-guidelines/01.md), and the [Open License](../../intro/open-license/01.md). Attesting to agreement can be done by either creating Door43 accounts or by physically signing the documents, digitizing them (scanning or photos), and submitting them as explained below. See http://ufw.io/forms for downloadable agreement forms.

Source Text Request Form

Once you have completed the prerequisites, you may fill out the source text request form at http://ufw.io/pub/. A few notes about the form:

  • You must have a Door43 account to create a request.
  • You must include the names or pseudonyms of everyone involved. You must also include their Door43 usernames if you are not attaching signed license agreements for them.
  • Note that the information you enter will be public and will become a part of the front matter of the source text.

After your form has been submitted, you will be contacted if anything is missing. Once the request has been approved, it will go into the publishing queue where a developer will work to make the translation a source text. You may also be contacted by the developer if there are any issues encounted during the publishing process. You will be notified when the process is completed, and you may review a PDF of the work.

Finishing the Source Text Process

After the source text publishing process is completed, your work will then be available:

  • Online on the unfoldingWord website
  • As a PDF, downloadable from unfoldingWord
  • In translationStudio as a source text for Other Languages to use (may require a tS update first)