Gateway Language Translation

Introduction

Note

This module answers the question, “What is the Gateway Language Manual?”

The Gateway Language Manual is for the use of translators and checkers of the Gateway Language (GL) resources. It presents the guidelines for translating and checking all of the GL resources.

Before translating or checking any of these resources, please read the manual carefully. It presents the unique properties of each of the resources, the purpose of each one, and how each one functions as part of a complete translation package for the use of Other Language (OL) translators.

If you fail to understand the properties and purpose of the resource that you are translating or checking, it will not be able to fulfil its purpose and the translation package that you produce will be defective. But if you follow these guidelines and understand well how each resource functions, you will produce a set of translation resources that will allow the OL translators to create accurate, natural, and clear translations of the Bible in their own languages.

See also

The Gateway Language Strategy at http://ufw.io/gl/.

What Needs To Be Translated

Note

This module answers the question, “What must be translated in the Gateway Languages?”

The following materials must be translated into the gateway languages and checked to the levels stated.

We recommend that you translate the resources in the order given in the list above. By translating tA first, the translators will gain knowledge of how to translate well, and also make that knowledge available in the GL for the rest of the translation team. Translating the OBS resources next will give the translation team valuable experience in translating as they work through a simplified presentation of biblical content. Then the translation team will be ready to start translating the two Bible texts and the related helps for those: tN, tQ, and tW.

It is important that you translate the text of the ULT and the UST before you translate tN and tQ. However, This could be done book-by-book or chapter-by-chapter. For example, you could translate all of the translation resources for each chapter of a Bible book together. In this case, for each chapter of text, you would translate the ULT and the UST of those verses, then tN, tW, and tQ for those same verses. Then you would move to the next chapter and translate each of the resources for that chapter. (For information about which books of the Bible to translate first, see the tA module Choosing What to Translate.)

Why Translate Two Bibles into the Gateway Languages?

Some people might ask this question, because adequate Bibles already exist in most of the Gateway languages. However, the existing translations are end-user Bibles, designed to be read and studied by people who speak those languages in their homes and churches. The Bibles that we are translating are not end-user Bibles. They are Bible texts designed to be used in conjunction with each other and with the other translation helps as a set of tools that will allow speakers of other languages to use them to translate a Bible into their own languages. What they produce from these tools will be an end-user Bible.

To make an end-user Bible, it is always best to translate from more than one version, so that the translator does not fall into the habit of following the form of any one version too closely. Also, it is always possible to translate something in more than one way in a target language, and often the biblical language has more than one possible meaning. Looking at multiple versions that between them reveal these differences gives the translator a window into those things that a single version would not give. This benefit is maximized when the two (or more) source Bibles use very different styles, such as literal and simplified. Having a literal version and a simplified version side by side give the translator a “three-dimensional” view into the original text, allowing him to see both the form and the meaning at the same time. It is for this purpose that we are providing the ULT and the UST.

Translating the ULT

Note

This module answers the question, “What are the guidelines for translating the ULT?”

Translation Theory for Translating the ULT

The ULT is designed to be used in conjunction with the tN and the UST as a tool for Bible translation. Unlike the UST and unlike an end-user Bible, the ULT is designed to reflect the forms of the source languages, so that the OL translator can see what they are. By using the ULT, the OL translator can “look through” it to see how the original Bible expressed the biblical ideas.

As you translate the ULT you must try to retain the grammatical and syntactic structures of the original as far as the target language (GL) will allow. If the original structure does not make sense in the target language, then you will need to change it into a structure that does make sense. It is not useful to make a translation that the OL translator will not be able to understand. But as far as the target language will allow, retain the structures of the original in your translation of the ULT. It is possible that the OL expresses that meaning in the same way.

What method should be used to translate the ULT?

When translating the ULT, keep the English source open in front of you. This means that you should not use any methodology that includes a step of blind drafting. The reason for this is that blind drafting is a method that translators use in order to produce natural target language translations. Through blind drafting, the translator replaces structures from the source language that would be unnatural in the target language with structures that are natural for that target language. But the ULT is a tool that must retain the original, biblical language structures in order to be useful to the translator. The best way to guard these structures is to translate with the English source ULT open in front of you so that you can be sure to keep these structures as they are in the English ULT, as far as the target language will allow.

Does Translation of the ULT Require a Back Translation?

We expect that the people translating the text into the GL will be well-educated and have good theological training. They will be connected into church networks that will have adequate resources for checking the translations against the English source as well as the original biblical languages.

For these reasons, back translations of the text will usually not be necessary. An exception to this is if the translation was done by a secular translation company. In this case, either a church network that speaks that GL will need to check the translation or a back translation into English may be necessary, done according to the guidelines set forth in Back Translation and following modules.

What are the structures of the ULT that should be retained?

The translation of the ULT needs to retain the original grammatical forms (as far as is possible), the idioms, and the figures of speech of the original so that the OL translator can consider them and use them if they communicate the right thing in the target language. If those forms get changed in a GL translation of the ULT, then the OL translator will never see them and the tN about them will not make sense.

Keep in mind that the ULT and the UST are only going to be translated into the GLs, because they are translation tools for the use of the OL translator. We want these tools to be as useful as possible.

For the ULT, this means that it should retain structures that we would not always retain in an end-user Bible. The GL translator must understand that this translation will lack naturalness and sometimes also lack clarity because it is aiming at reproducing these original language structures and figures of speech that may not translate well into the GL. Wherever the ULT translation lacks clarity, however, there should also be a note to explain the meaning of the structure for the OL translator. The tN and the UST will provide the meaning wherever that meaning is in doubt in the ULT. In this way, the tools will work together to provide the OL translator with a full set of information about both the form and the meaning of the original Bible.

Examples

Grammatical Forms

The ULT of Luke 2:47 reproduces a grammatical form from the Greek source language that is also natural in English, but that might not be natural in other languages. When talking about the boy Jesus at the temple, it says, “All who heard him were amazed at his understanding and his answers.” The nouns “understanding” and “answers” refer to events, not things, and so must be translated as verbs in many languages.

The UST of the same verse gives an example of how these nouns can be translated as verbs. It says, “All the people who heard what he said were amazed at how much he understood and how well he answered the questions that the teachers asked.”

When translating the ULT, however, these nouns should be translated as nouns if that will make sense in the target language.

Idioms

The ULT of Matthew 2:20 reproduces an idiom from the Greek source language. It refers to Herod and his soldiers who were trying to kill the child Jesus as, “those who sought the child’s life.” In some languages this is clear, and in others it is not.

The UST of the same verse tries to make the meaning clear by translating this idiom as, “the people who were trying to kill the child.” Many GL Bibles do the same thing.

When translating the ULT, however, this idiom should be translated as it is, so that the OL translator can consider it and use it if it makes sense. The UST and the tN will provide the meaning.

Figures of Speech

The ULT of John 1:17 reproduces a figure of speech from the Greek source language. It says, “grace and truth came through Jesus Christ.” (This figure of speech is called “personification;” see the tA module Personification.) This figure of speech talks as if grace and truth were like people who can come and go, and it talks as if Jesus Christ were like a doorway that they can come through. In some languages this makes sense, but in other languages it does not. The plain meaning is that Jesus Christ acted toward us with grace and taught us true things about God.

The UST of the same verse tries to make this plain meaning clear by translating it as, “Jesus Christ was kind to us far beyond what we deserved and taught us true things about God.”

When translating the ULT, however, this figure of speech should be translated as it is, so that the OL translator can consider it and use it if it makes sense. If it does not, the UST provides an alternative way to translate it.

Translating the UST

Note

This module answers the question, “What are the guidelines for translating the UST?”

See also

Translating the ULT, the Gateway Language Strategy at http://ufw.io/gl/.

Translation Theory for Translating the UST

The UST is designed to be used in conjunction with the ULT and the tN as a tool for Bible translation. Unlike the ULT and unlike an end-user Bible, the UST does not use figures of speech, idioms, abstract nouns, or grammatical forms that are difficult to translate into many languages. The purpose of the UST is to show the plain meaning of all of those things wherever they occur in the ULT. Because the UST lacks these things, it is not a beautiful end-user Bible. An end-user Bible will use the figures of speech and idioms that speak naturally and beautifully in the target language, but the UST does not use them.

As the OL translator uses both the UST and the ULT together as his translation source, he will be able to see the figures of speech, idioms, and other forms of the original Bible in the ULT and also see what their meaning is in the UST. Then he can use the figures of speech or other forms from the ULT that are clear and natural in his language. When the forms in the ULT are not clear or natural in his language, then he can choose other forms in his language that have the same meaning as the UST translation or the Notes. When translating the UST, please do not use idioms, figures of speech, or difficult grammatical forms in the GL translation. The purpose of the UST is to change all of these problematic grammatical forms into more universal ones to make them easier to translate, and to make the meaning as clear as possible.

The primary goal of the UST is to express the meaning of the Bible as clearly as possible. In order to do this, it follows these guidelines.

The UST must avoid:

  1. Idioms

  2. Figures of speech

  3. Events out of order

  4. Difficult or specialized grammar:

    1. Complex sentences
    2. Passive voice
    3. Abstract or verbal nouns
    4. People speaking of themselves in third person

The UST must explicitly include:

  1. Participants where these are unclear
  2. Implied information that is necessary for understanding

When translating the UST, please do not use those things that it must avoid in the GL translation. The purpose of the UST is to change all of those problematic forms into more universal ones to make them easier to translate. Also, be sure to include all of the named participants and the information that has been made explicit so that the meaning can be as clear as possible.

What method should be used to translate the UST?

When translating the UST, keep the English source open in front of you. This means that you should not use any methodology that includes a step of blind drafting. The reason for this is that blind drafting is a method that translators use in order to produce natural target language translations. Through blind drafting, the translator replaces structures from the source language that would be unnatural in the target language with structures that are natural for that target language. But the UST is a tool that carefully avoids certain structures that can be difficult to translate in some languages, as explained above. If the translator is using blind drafting, he might accidentally replace the simple structures of the UST with structures that are natural in the target GL but unwanted in the UST, such as idioms and figures of speech from the target GL. In order to guard against replacing these structures, it is best to translate the UST with the English source text open to look at.

Does Translation of the UST Require a Back Translation?

We expect that the people translating the text into the GL will be well-educated and have good theological training. They will be connected into church networks that will have adequate resources for checking the translations against the English source as well as the original biblical languages.

For these reasons, back translations of the text will usually not be necessary. An exception to this is if the translation was done by a secular translation company. In this case, either a church network that speaks that GL will need to check the translation or a back translation into English may be necessary, done according to the guidelines set forth in Back Translation and following modules.

Examples

The following are examples of ways that the text of the Bible can be unclear for some languages and what the UST does to overcome those problems. When you translate the UST, make sure that your translation of the UST also avoids these problems.

Passive Voice

Passive voice is a grammatical construction that is common in Greek and English but it is not used in many other languages, so it can be very confusing. For that reason, it is not used in the UST. In passive voice, the receiver of the action changes places with the actor. In English, the actor normally comes first in the sentence. But in passive voice, the receiver of the action comes first. Often, the actor is left unstated. In that case, the UST will fill in the actor. See “Missing Participants” below.

For example, the ULT of Romans 2:24 says, “… the name of God is dishonored among the Gentiles because of you.”

The action is “dishonor,” the actors are “the Gentiles” (non-Jews), and the receiver of the action is “the name of God.” The reason for the action is “because of you.”

The UST rearranges the verse to put the actor and the receiver of the action in a more normal order. It says, “The non-Jews speak evil about God because of the evil actions of you Jews.” This is more clear for many languages. When you translate the UST, make sure that you do not use any passive voice constructions.

Abstract Nouns

The ULT of Romans 2:10 says, “But praise, honor, and peace will come to everyone who practices good…”

In this verse, the words “praise,” “honor,” “peace,” and “good” are abstract nouns. That is, they are words that refer to things that we cannot see or touch. They are ideas. The ideas that these nouns express are closer to actions or descriptions than they are to things. In many languages, therefore, these ideas must be expressed by verbs or description words, not by nouns.

For this reason, the UST expresses these nouns as actions or descriptions. It says, “But God will praise, honor, and give a peaceful spirit to every person who habitually does good deeds.”

When translating the UST, avoid using abstract nouns. For more information on abstract nouns, see the tA module Abstract Nouns.

Long, Complex Sentences

The UST avoids using long or complex sentences. In many languages, long or complex sentences are unnatural and unclear.

The ULT translates the first three verses of Romans as one complex sentence. It says,

1Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God, 2which he promised beforehand by his prophets in the holy scriptures, 3concerning his Son, who was born from the descendants of David according to the flesh.

The UST breaks that into five sentences that are more simple in form. It says,

1I, Paul, who serve Christ Jesus, am writing this letter to all of you believers in the city of Rome. God chose me to be an apostle, and he appointed me in order that I should proclaim the good news that comes from him. 2Long before Jesus came to earth, God promised that he would reveal this good news by means of what his prophets wrote in the sacred scriptures. 3This good news is about his Son. As to his Son’s physical nature, he was born a descendant of King David.

When translating the UST, keep the sentences short and simple.

Missing Participants

The UST often fills in the participants when these are lacking in the original Bible and the ULT. In the original biblical languages, these participants could be left out and still understood by the reader. But in many languages these must be included for the translation to be clear and natural.

In the ULT, Romans 1:1 says, “Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God…”

In this verse, there is a participant that is left unstated, but still understood. This participant is God. It is God who called Paul to be an apostle and who set him apart for the Gospel. In some languages, this participant must be stated.

Therefore the UST of Romans 1:1 says, “God chose me to be an apostle, and he appointed me in order that I should proclaim the good news that comes from him.”

When translating the UST, be sure to include all of the participants that are there in the UST.

Events out of Order

The ULT of Luke 2:6-7 says,

6Now it came about that while they were there, the time came for her to deliver her baby. 7She gave birth to a son, her firstborn child, and she wrapped him snugly in strips of cloth. Then she put him in an animal feeding trough, because there was no room for them in a guest room.

In some languages, events need to be told in the order in which they happened, or else the story will be confusing and hard to understand. People might understand from these verses that Mary delivered her baby outside in the street, and then looked for somewhere to stay and, after a long search, ended up putting him in an animal feeding trough.

The UST tells these events in the order in which they happened, so that it is clear that Mary was already in the shelter for animals when she gave birth. It says,

6-7When they arrived in Bethlehem, there was no place for them to stay in a place where visitors usually stayed. So they had to stay in a place where animals slept overnight. While they were there the time came for Mary to give birth and she gave birth to her first child, a son. She wrapped him in wide strips of cloth and placed him in the feeding place for the animals.

Figures of Speech

The ULT of Romans 2:21 says, “You who preach not to steal, do you steal?”

This is a figure of speech called a rhetorical question. It is not a real question that is used to seek an answer. It is used to make a point. In this case, Paul is using it to scold his audience and to condemn their hypocrisy. Many languages do not use rhetorical questions, or they do not use them in this way.

To show how to translate this meaning without a rhetorical question, the UST says, “You who preach that people should not steal things, it is disgusting that you yourself steal things!” When you translate the UST, be sure to not use rhetorical questions or other figures of speech. (For more examples of figures of speech, see the tA module Figures of Speech. and the modules linked there.)

Idioms

The ULT of Deuteronomy 32:10 says, “he guarded him as the apple of his eye.”

The word “apple” here does not refer to a kind of fruit, but instead refers to the pupil, the dark center of a person’s eye. The phrase “the apple of his eye” is an idiom that refers to anything that is extremely precious to a person, or the one thing that is the most precious to a person. In many languages this idiom makes no sense, but they have other idioms that have this meaning. The OL translator should use one of these idioms from the target language in the OL translation, but there should be no idiom in the translation of the UST.

To show the meaning of this verse, the UST expresses this in plain language, without an idiom. It says, “He protected them and took care of them, as every person takes good care of his own eyes.”

The Notes add another way to translate this that makes the meaning clear. It says, “He protected the people of Israel as something most valuable and precious.” When you translate the UST, be sure that you do not use any idioms. Only use plain language that makes the meaning clear. (For more information on idioms, see the tA module Idiom.)

(For more examples of how the UST avoids difficult grammatical constructions, idioms, and figures of speech, see the section of examples in Translating the ULT.)

People Speaking of Themselves in Third Person

The ULT of Genesis 18:3 says:

He said, “My Lord, if I have found favor in your eyes, please do not pass by your servant.”

Here Abraham refers to himself in the third person as “your servant.” To make it clear that Abraham is referring to himself, the UST adds the first person pronoun “me.”

The UST of Genesis 18:3 says:

He said to one of them, “My Lord, if you are pleased with me, then please stay here with me, your servant, for a little while.”

When editing or translating the UST, be sure to include the indications of the first person that are there in these passages of the UST so that it can be as clear as possible.

Implied Information

The ULT of Mark 1:44 says:

He said to him, “Be sure to say nothing to anyone, but go, show yourself to the priest, and offer for your cleansing what Moses commanded, as a testimony to them.”

This was all that Jesus needed to say to the man whom he had just healed of leprosy, because the man was Jewish and knew all about the laws concerning being clean and unclean. But most modern readers of our Bible translations do not know that information. For that reason, the UST makes this information explicit that was left implied in the text. This information is indicated in italics below.

The UST of Mark 1:44 says:

He said, “Do not tell anyone what just happened. Instead, go to a priest and show yourself to him in order that he may examine you and see that you no longer have leprosy. Then make the offering that Moses commanded for people whom God has healed from leprosy. This will be the testimony to the community that you are healed.”

When editing or translating the UST, be sure to include all of the implied information that is there in the UST so that it can be as clear as possible.

Adapting the ULT

Note

This module answers the question, “What are the guidelines for adapting an existing translation as the ULT?”

Prerequisites for Adapting an Existing Translation for the ULT

What is needed to adapt an existing translation and use it as the ULT for a GL?

In order to adapt an existing translation and use it as the ULT for a GL, it is necessary that the existing translation be a literal translation. That is, it should follow the same order of clauses as the original biblical languages and reproduce the original biblical idioms and figures of speech. Most Bibles that were translated into GLs in the first half of the twentieth century or earlier are literal translations.

It is also necessary that the Bible that you adapt as the ULT not be encumbered by copyright. That means that it must be in the public domain or have a license that permits us to reproduce and translate it. (For more information on copyrights and licensing, see the tA module Open License.)

If the Bible is very old, you will need to update the language and the style so that it uses words that people use now and “talks” in the way that people talk now. Even though the ULT has a literal style, it must use words that people know so that they can understand it.

Methodology for Adapting an Existing Translation for the ULT

What are the steps for adapting an existing translation for the ULT?

Because adapting an existing translation is a process of editing rather than of translating, you should not try to follow any translation methodology. Especially do not follow any methodology that uses blind drafting. Instead, you should follow these steps:

  1. Read the chapter in the English ULT and the Notes for that chapter. If you are beginning to translate a book, also read the overview of the book.

  2. Read the chapter in the Bible that you are adapting as the ULT.

  3. Go through the chapter and change old words to words that people use now.

  4. Using the list of tW for that chapter, check to make sure that a good translation for each of those words is used in the Gateway Language ULT.

  5. If some sentences are put together in a strange way, check to see if they are also that way in the English ULT.

    1. If the sentences are also put together in that same strange way in the English ULT, it is because the original Bible has that structure. Leave them as they are. There will be a note that will explain that structure.
    2. If the sentences are not put together in that same strange way in the English ULT, then change the sentence so that it is clearer for modern readers.
  6. If you see that any verse or phrase in the Bible that you are adapting is very different than the English ULT, then change it so that it is more like the English ULT.

  7. If you see that any verse is missing in the Bible that you are adapting but it is there in the English ULT, then translate that verse from the English ULT.

After you do these things so that the text is ready to use as the GL ULT, you will need to translate the tN. As you translate the tN, you may see that there are parts of your adapted ULT that should be different so that the note can make sense. Also, you may see that some tN need to be changed so that they can refer to the right parts of the adapted ULT. In this way, you will need to make changes to both the Gateway Language ULT and the Notes as you adapt them to each other so that they make sense and are truly helpful for the OL translator. (For more information about this process, see Translating translationNotes.)

Does Adapting a Translation of the ULT Require a Back Translation?

How does the church ensure the translation conforms to these guidelines?

We expect that the translation that has been adapted as the ULT already went through a series of checks to ensure that it accurately reflects the original meaning of the biblical text. This would have been done by the entity that originally translated and published the Bible translation. We also expect that the people adapting this translation for use as the ULT in the Gateway Language will be well-educated and have good theological training. They will also be connected into church networks that will have adequate resources for checking the adapted translation.

For these reasons, back translations of the text will usually not be necessary. An exception to this is if the translation was done by a secular translation company. In this case, either a church network that speaks that GL will need to check the translation or a back translation into English may be necessary, done according to the guidelines set forth in Back Translation and following modules.

Translating translationNotes

Note

This module answers the question, “What are the guidelines for translating or adapting the translationNotes?”

See also

In order to understand this topic, it would be good to read: Translating the ULT, Adapting the ULT

Guidelines

tN offer alternative ways to translate a phrase from the ULT. It is important that the phrase that you use to translate this kind of note be a direct substitute for the phrase that it replaces in the ULT. In other words, the phrase has to have the same grammatical construction as the phrase in the ULT. It needs to fit into the sentence in the ULT just like the original phrase did.

In order to make sure that the phrase in the GL note fits the sentence in the GL ULT, you must be able to always look at both the English note and the GL ULT as you translate. Translating the tN while having the source visible is the most efficient way to translate them and this will also reduce the number of errors in translation. (For more information on the types of tN, see the tA module Using the translationNotes.)

Does the entire Bible need to be translated first?

It is not necessary to have the entire ULT and UST Bible translated before translating the helps (tN, tW, tQ). The translation of these resources for a book could be started after the translation of that book is complete.

When I am translating the notes, do I need the ULT and UST available and translated?

Yes. When you translate the tN for a book of the Bible, you must also have both the ULT and the UST in front of you, already translated into the target Gateway Language in final form for that book. You must have the ULT available so that you can copy the part of the ULT text that the note is talking about directly into the note. You must also have the UST text already translated and available, because the tN often copy part of the UST text in order to show another way to translate the same part of the verse. Other times, the note does not quote the UST but it does refer to it. In that case, you need to be able to see what the UST says in order to translate the note in the best way.

In addition, the tN directly comment on parts of the ULT text, so you must read the part of the ULT text that the note comments on in order to properly translate the translationNote. After you read and understand the ULT text, then you can translate the note so that it makes sense together with the ULT text that it refers to.

When you translate the tN, do not translate the part at the beginning that is a quote from the ULT. Always copy that part from the Gateway Language ULT. For example, the following is a Note from Ephesians 1:8.

>*He lavished this grace upon us* “He gave us this great amount of grace” or “He was extremely kind to us”

The first part, He lavished this grace upon us, is a direct quote from the ULT. You must copy that part from the Gateway Language ULT - Do not translate that part of the Note. It is important that that part be exactly the same as in the Gateway Language ULT. The next two sentences are alternative ways to express the same meaning, and must fit into the verse in the same way as the part that is quoted, as explained above.

May I use blind drafting?

No. Do not use any method that includes blind drafting to translate the tN. Always translate the tN with the Gateway Language ULT and UST in front of you, and the English tN also visible. This is because you must copy the ULT phrase into the note exactly as it is in the ULT, and you must also copy the UST phrase if the note also quotes the UST.

How does the church ensure the translation conforms to these guidelines?

We expect that the people translating the text into the GL will be well-educated and have good theological training. They will be connected into church networks that will have adequate resources for checking the translations against the English source as well as the original biblical languages.

Becuase the tN talk about grammar and figures of speech, it is highly recommended that the people translating them into the GL have training in linguistics as well as in biblical studies. They will need to know how to adapt the tN for the grammar of the GL.

Adapting the translationNotes

May I change a note so that it makes sense in my language?

Often, the ULT in the target GL will say things in a different way than the ULT said them in English. In order for the note to be useful in the target GL, you will need to adapt the note so that it talks about the text of the ULT as it is in the GL translation.

This means that you will need to copy the phrase of the GL ULT that is the translation of the same phrase from the English ULT into the translationNote, and then sometimes change the note so that it makes sense and is helpful for the OL translator who will use these tN as translation tools.

May I delete a note that does not apply to my language?

Because languages can be very different from each other, sometimes there will be tN that are important and necessary for some languages, but that are not needed for other languages. If there is a note that does not make sense when applied to the ULT text in the target GL, then you as the translator will need to modify the note so that it does make sense in relation to the ULT in your target GL.

If the note does not apply at all to the target GL text of the ULT, then you may delete that note from your translation of the tN. But be sure to think about it very carefully before you delete a translationNote, to be sure that it is not necessary for the OL translator who will be using the GL translation.

May I add a note that would help with translation in my language?

For the same reason, sometimes you will realize that the OL translator will need a note in order to understand a phrase in the target GL ULT, but there might not be a note already written for that phrase, because it was not necessary for the English ULT. In that case, you will need to write a new note and include it in your translation. Usually these tN will be to explain a phrase or way of saying something that is normal in the GL but that is not normal in the OLs that you know of. When writing your translationNote, follow the same style and format of the existing tN.

Remember that speakers of many different languages will be using these GL tN to help them translate the Bible. There will be many things that you will understand about the Bible in the GL that the OL translator may not understand. For that reason, if you think that there is something difficult to understand in the GL ULT, write a note that can help the OL translator to understand it. There will probably be many OL translators who will benefit from reading the note and who will make a better translation because of it.

Because the tN need to be adapted in these ways and not simply translated, it is best if the people adapting the tN be people who are well educated in both linguistics and biblical studies so that they can understand the various problems that the tN explain.

Translating translationWords

Note

This module answers the question, “What are the guidelines for translating translationWords?”

Guidelines

It is important that the OL translators understand all of the words that they are translating. But some of the words in the Bible are not used in everyday life in our time or in our cultures, and so the translator may not be familiar with them. Other words are used in everyday life, but they are used in a different way in the Bible. Some of these words have very important or special meanings in the Bible. They tell us a lot about God and his relationship with us.

In order for the OL translator to completely understand these words, we have provided the definitions in tW. When you translate this list into the GL, it will help all of the OL translators who will use it to translate the Bible for their people with good understanding.

Does the entire Bible need to be translated first?

It is not necessary to have the entire ULT and UST Bible translated before translating the helps (tN, tW, tQ). The translation of these resources for a book could be started after the translation of that book is complete.

What is the “Definition” section of translationWords?

tW entries have several parts; the first part is “Definition.” This gives the meaning of the word as it is used in the Bible. Please do not use definitions from a modern GL dictionary, because the way words are used in the Bible can be different from the way they are used in modern, everyday life. We want to make sure that the OL translator understands the way that the word is used in the Bible.

It is possible that the GL might express the idea of the English tW by using different words for that idea in different contexts. That is, the GL may use different words when the idea is talked about in different ways. Each of these GL words for the tW word may have a part of the meaning of the English word.

In this case, you will need to list each of those words at the top, separated by commas. Several of the English tW entries already have multiple words at the top like this, such as “prophet, prophecy, prophesy, seer, prophetess” (see the Prophet tW article). Then, in the “Definition” part, you will need to list those words in separate paragraphs with a definition for each one. The OL translator can then choose the word that he needs to understand from that list and translate it correctly in the passage that he is translating.

What is the “Translation Suggestions” section of translationWords?

The second part of a tW entry is “Translation Suggestions” or “Translation Strategies.” This section gives different ideas for how the OL translator can translate the word. This section gives more than one way to translate the word because it can mean slightly different things in different contexts. Be sure that you understand the differences of meaning between the different contexts in which the word is used so that you can translate them correctly.

In the GL, some of the tW are not used in all of the same contexts as the English tW are. In that case, you will need to adjust your translation. If one of the Translation Suggestions does not work in the GL, then do not translate that Translation Suggestion. Instead, write a Translation Suggestion that shows how that word is used in the GL. Think about the different ways that the word is used in the Bible, and try to make sure that there is a Translation Suggestion for each of the primary uses. We want the OL translator to see and consider the differences and the similarity in meaning between the uses of the word so that he can choose the best word in his language to express those meanings.

As you translate the ULT and UST, you may find that you need to add a meaning to a word in the tW entry, or you may need to add another word to the entry because the GL uses more than one word for the idea of that important tW. Go ahead and do this as you find more words or meanings for the words.

Under the “Translation Suggestions” or “Translation Strategies” section is a line that says, “(See also…).” You only need to translate the words “See also,” and you only need to translate this one time, not for every tW. The rest of the line will be created automatically, if the translation is done in translationStudio Desktop.

Do I translate the “Bible References” and “Examples for the Bible Stories” sections of translationWords?

The third and fourth parts are “Bible References” and “Examples from the Bible Stories.” You only need to translate these words of the titles, and you only need to translate them one time, not for every tW. You do not need to translate the rest of these parts. They will be created automatically, if the translation is done in translationStudio Desktop.

Translating translationQuestions

Note

This module answers the question, “What are the guidelines for translating translationQuestions?”

Guidelines

We want all translations of the Bible to communicate clearly the message that God wants them to communicate. One tool that we are providing so that the OL translators can make sure that their translations are communicating correctly is translationQuestions (tQ). The OL translators will use tQ to conduct community checks of each chapter of the Bible that they translate.

Does the entire Bible need to be translated first?

It is not necessary to have the entire ULT and UST Bible translated before translating the helps (tN, tW, tQ). The translation of these resources for a book could be started after the translation of that book is complete.

If the ULT Has Not Been Translated

In order to translate the questions for a book of the Bible, the ULT of that book must be translated already. The purpose of the questions is to check the translation of the ULT, so it serves no purpose to translate the questions first.

Translating translationAcademy

Note

This module answers the question, “What are the guidelines for translating translationAcademy?”